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    Reaction variables

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    Talib Al_Munawri
    Director-General
    Director-General

    Posts : 337
    Join date : 2009-07-03
    Age : 30
    Location : Sultanate of Oman

    Reaction variables

    Post by Talib Al_Munawri on Fri Sep 04, 2009 12:21 pm

    Reaction variables


    Heat
    Time
    Concentration of reactants
    Catalysts
    Pressure



    Temperature

    Rapid movement of molecules & more collisions frequently in the mixture,
    at high temperatures.
    More often they collide, more apt to react.
    Two chemicals will react doubles for each 10°C increase in temperature.
    (Thumb rule)


    Reaction Time

    Reaction time- The length of time,the reactants are in contact at the
    desired reaction conditions.
    Residence time- The length of time, reactants remain in a tank before
    forming a product. Longer the reaction time, the more products.



    Concentration of Reactants

    Concentration of reactants in reactor decides,
    How much quantities of correct products,
    How fast the reaction will take place,
    How much heat to be supplied or taken away
    Good mixing or good agitation produces an efficient reaction with the desired products


    Catalyst

    A catalyst is a material designed to stimulate (to start, to increase
    or decrease the rate of a chemical reaction) & produces desirable product.
    Most catalysts do not react with the reactants, so they can be reused
    several times until they become dirty or ineffective.

    Catalysts

    Catalysts can be classified as adsorption, intermediate, inhibitor, or poisoned.
    An adsorption-type catalyst is a solid that attracts and holds reactant molecules so a higher number of collisions can occur.
    Intermediate catalyst forms an intermediate product with the reactant & slowing
    it down so collisions can occur.
    Inhibitor-type catalyst is any substance slows a reaction.
    Poisoned catalyst is one that no longer functions or is used up.



    Inhibitor


    An inhibitor is a substance that prevents or hinders the reaction of two
    or more chemicals.
    Trace amounts of impurities in the feedstock
    Inhibitor may hinder the reaction by reacting with some of the raw materials
    before the desired reaction can take place, or it may react with the catalyst, making it unstable


      Current date/time is Tue Oct 24, 2017 12:52 pm