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Oil, gas and petrochemical process industries


    Distillation

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    Talib Al_Munawri
    Director-General
    Director-General

    Posts : 337
    Join date : 2009-07-03
    Age : 30
    Location : Sultanate of Oman

    Distillation

    Post by Talib Al_Munawri on Fri Sep 04, 2009 1:08 pm

    Distillation



    Distillation involves boiling liquids and condensing the vapors

    The condensed liquid is referred to as the distillate

    The liquid that does not vaporize in a column is called the residue



    Distillation is a process that separates the basic components or fractions of a mixture, as per their individual boiling points by boiling & condensation.

    During the distillation process, a mixture is heated until it vaporizes, then is re-condensed on the trays at various stages of the column

    These components are collected as overhead, side stream, and bottom receivers (products).




    Distillation Components

    A feed system
    A preheat system
    The distillation column
    The overhead system &
    The bottom system


    Distillation


    The feed system is designed to safely store, blend, and transport the raw feedstock.
    This simple system is composed of tanks, pipes, valves, instrumentation,and pumps.
    Preheating systems are designed to raise the temperature of the raw feedstock before it enters the distillation column.
    A heat exchanger or a furnace system is used


    A distillation column is a tower with a series of trays or packing that provide contact points for the vapor and liquid.
    Plate columns have a series of trays stacked on top of each other.
    Packed columns are filled with packing material to enhance vapor-liquid contact.
    The function of each of these column types is to allow
    lighter components to rise up the column while heavier components drop down or, in other words, to separate the various components
    in the mixture by their boiling points.



    During tower operation, raw materials are pumped to a feed tank and mixed thoroughly using a pump

    This mixture is pumped to a feed preheater or furnace, where the temperature of
    the fluid mixture is brought up to operating conditions.

    Preheaters are usually shell and tube heat exchangers or fired furnaces.
    This fluid enters the feed tray or section in the tower.

    Part of the mixture vaporizes as it enters the column,
    while the rest begins to drop into the lower sections of the tower.


    As vaporization occurs, the lighter components of the mixture move up
    the tower and are distributed on the various trays.

    The lightest component goes out the top of the tower in a vapor state
    and is passed over the cooling coils of a hell and tube condenser.

    As the hot vapor comes into contact with the coils, it condenses
    and is collected in the overhead accumulator.

    Part of this product is sent to storage while the rest is returned to
    the tower as reflux.



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