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Oil, gas and petrochemical process industries


    (( Furnaces ))

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    Talib Al_Munawri
    Director-General
    Director-General

    Posts : 337
    Join date : 2009-07-03
    Age : 30
    Location : Sultanate of Oman

    (( Furnaces ))

    Post by Talib Al_Munawri on Mon Sep 07, 2009 11:34 pm

    Furnaces


    A furnace, or fired heater, is a device used to heat up chemicals or chemical mixtures, generated by the combustion of natural gas, methane, ethane, propane, or fuel oil in the burner, which is used in the process industries.

    Furnaces consist essentially of a battery of pipes or tubes that pass through a firebox.

    The heat released by the burners is transferred through the tubes and to the process fluid.




    Furnaces Applications


    Furnaces are used in crude processing, cracking, olefins production, and many other processes.

    Furnaces heat up raw materials so they can produce products
    such as gasoline, oil, kerosene, chemicals, plastic, and rubber.
    The chemical-processing industry uses a variety of fired heater designs.



    Furnace heat transfer


    The primary means of heat transfer in a furnace are radiation, convection and conduction through the walls of the tubes to the flowing fluid.

    In the furnace, the flame on the burner is the radiant heat source. Radiant heat transfer takes place primarily in the firebox, which is referred as radiant section

    As the radiant heat travels from the bottom of the furnace to the top, contacting the tubes passing in the furnace, heat is transferred to the surrounding air by convective heat transfer process.The top of the furnace is referred to as the convection section because most of the heat it receives is by convection.


    Radiant heat transfer accounts for 60 to
    70% of the total heat transfer in the furnace

    Convective heat transfer to the process
    charge accounts for about 30 to 40% of the
    total heat energy picked up in the furnace.

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