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Oil, gas and petrochemical process industries


    Introduction of Petroleum

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    Talib Al_Munawri
    Director-General
    Director-General

    Posts : 337
    Join date : 2009-07-03
    Age : 30
    Location : Sultanate of Oman

    Introduction of Petroleum

    Post by Talib Al_Munawri on Thu Sep 10, 2009 4:24 am

    Introduction of Petroleum


    A. The petroleum industry began with the successful drilling of the first commercial oil well in 1859, and the opening of the first refinery two years later to process the crude into kerosene. The evolution of petroleum refining from simple distillation to today's sophisticated processes has created a need for health and safety management procedures and safe work practices. To those unfamiliar with the industry, petroleum refineries may appear to be complex and confusing places.
    Refining is the processing of one complex mixture of hydrocarbons into a number of other complex mixtures of hydrocarbons. The safe and orderly processing of crude oil into flammable gases and liquids at high temperatures and pressures using vessels, equipment, and piping subjected to stress and corrosion requires considerable knowledge, control, and expertise.


    B. Safety and health professionals, working with process, chemical, instrumentation, and metallurgical engineers, assure that potential physical, mechanical, chemical, and health hazards are recognized and provisions are made for safe operating practices and appropriate protective measures.
    These measures may include:

    hard hats
    safety glasses
    goggles
    safety shoes
    hearing protection
    respiratory protection
    protective clothing such as fire resistant clothing where required.


    In addition, procedures should be established to assure compliance with applicable regulations and standards such as hazard communications, confined space entry, and process safety management.


    C. The history of refinery processing, characteristics of crude oil, hydrocarbon types and chemistry, and major refinery products and by-products. It presents information on technology as normally practiced in present operations. It describes the more common refinery processes and includes relevant safety and health information. Additional information covers refinery utilities and miscellaneous supporting activities related to hydrocarbon processing. Field personnel will learn what to expect in various facilities regarding typical materials and process methods, equipment, potential hazards, and exposures.


    D. The information presented refers to fire prevention, industrial hygiene, and safe work practices, and is not intended to provide comprehensive guidelines for protective measures and/or compliance with regulatory requirements. As some of the terminology is industry-specific, a glossary is provided as an appendix. This chapter does not cover petrochemical processing.

      Current date/time is Mon Aug 21, 2017 4:06 am